Sunday, August 23, 2020
Friday, August 21, 2020
Jataka portrays Prince Vassantara as one of the rebirths of Buddha. It is conceivable to take note of that PrinceÃ¢â¬â¢s all activities are driven by his longing to part with. This longing makes him part with his fortunes, his realm and even his family. All the more along these lines, he is prepared to part with his self in the event that it is necessary.Advertising We will compose a custom exposition test on The Perfect Generosity of Prince Vessantara explicitly for you for just $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is viewed as the most noteworthy sign of prudence and Jataka portrays last resurrection of Buddha thusly to pressure one of the significant estimations of the religion. As a matter of fact, benevolence is viewed as one of the most significant qualities of a noble man. Jataka recounts to the account of Prince Vassantara to give individuals the model to follow. The longing to part with showed up in Prince Vassantara when he was in his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s belly causing his mom to n eed Ã¢â¬Å"to have six almshouses builtÃ¢â¬ and give a ton of presents, Ã¢â¬Å"every day to give 600,000 gold coinsÃ¢â¬ (Cone Gombrich 8). Jataka stresses that it is a highminded want as the ruler and every one of his guides comprehend that the sovereign has the future divinity in her belly. The ruler is prepared to give loads of endowments too. The kingÃ¢â¬â¢s counselors guarantee that the god in the queenÃ¢â¬â¢s belly Ã¢â¬Å"will never be satiated with givingÃ¢â¬ (Cone Gombrich 8). This is an incredible gift for the ruler who is glad to have such an honest kid. The Prince satisfies the advisorsÃ¢â¬â¢ words from the absolute first long stretches of his life. The Prince will in general part with his assets from his initial years. For example, when he is just four or five, he takes the trimmings from his rooms and parts with them to his medical caretakers. Once more, the ruler is entranced with this and cases that the medical caretakers should keep the endowments as th ose are Ã¢â¬Å"holyÃ¢â¬ blessings and what is given by the Prince Ã¢â¬Å"is given wellÃ¢â¬ (Cone Gombrich 10). The kid does likewise multiple times and makes his folks and the entire realm considerably more joyful (Cone Gombrich 10). Notwithstanding, these presents can't be contrasted with what Prince Vassantara is prepared to part with. At eight years old, the Prince comprehends that it isn't sufficient to part with things which are Ã¢â¬Å"externalÃ¢â¬ to him (Cone Gombrich 10). He is encircled by delightful and important things which can be relinquished. In fact, the Prince comprehends that he needn't bother with things and assets to be cheerful and enlightened.Advertising Looking for article on religion religious philosophy? How about we check whether we can support you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thus, he doesn't believe those endowments to be sufficient. His concept of charity goes past the universe of material qualities. He asserts, Ã¢â¬Å"I need to give something of my very selfÃ¢â¬ (Cone Gombrich 10). Jataka portrays Prince Vassantara as the most giving man who is prepared to give truly everything. The Prince turns into an image of charity and, simultaneously, the image of legitimacy. Portraying the PrinceÃ¢â¬â¢s assurance, Jataka stresses this is the best approach to live on the planet as Ã¢â¬Å"Sakka, the lord of the divine beings, snapped his fingers in approvalÃ¢â¬ (Cone Gombrich 10). Jataka likewise depicts the indication of the godÃ¢â¬â¢s endorsement as Ã¢â¬Å"the sky . poured down an unexpected showerÃ¢â¬ (Cone Gombrich 10). Eminently, downpour has consistently been viewed as an image of the godsÃ¢â¬â¢ endorsement and godsÃ¢â¬â¢ favoring. Subsequently, complete benevolence is essential as the divine beings favor of such demeanor towards life. It is important to take note of that Jataka portrays Prince Vassantara in the manner he does to give individuals the model to follow. At the end of the day, Jatak a gives a case of a sacred and upright life. Obviously, Jataka addresses individuals and stresses that they should attempt to follow the model given. Jataka instructs individuals to be sacrificial and center around profound improvement as opposed to material qualities. Jataka states that the Prince figures out how to live an exemplary path and to part with everything. For this, he is honored and divinities help him to arrive at his significant objective throughout everyday life and stay a noble man. The Prince parts with everything to individuals who are out of luck. This story ought to be viewed as a model and everybody should attempt to give something Ã¢â¬ËexternalÃ¢â¬â¢ and much more when there are individuals out of luck. JatakaÃ¢â¬â¢s story instructs individuals to make progress toward profound turn of events. The individuals who take a stab at illumination ought to follow the PrinceÃ¢â¬â¢s model and to be prepared to part with their own selves. To summarize, Jataka rec ounts to an account of one of BuddhaÃ¢â¬â¢s resurrections. Sovereign Vassantara is driven by his craving to part with all that he can (for example his fortunes, his realm, his youngsters, his better half and in any event, more).Advertising We will compose a custom paper test on The Perfect Generosity of Prince Vessantara explicitly for you for just $16.05 $11/page Learn More This longing is viewed as probably the best uprightness and all individuals just as gods favor the sovereign. Jataka recounts to the story to give a case of a legitimate life which all individuals should lead. Sovereign Vassantara is a case of an individual who comprehends what benevolence truly implies. The individuals who need to accomplish illumination should attempt to be as noble as the Prince. Works Cited Cone, Margaret and Richard F. Gombrich. The Perfect Generosity of Prince Vessantara. Oxford: Claredon Press, 1977. Print. This exposition on The Perfect Generosity of Prince Vessantara was composed and presented by client Carl0s to help you with your own examinations. You are allowed to utilize it for research and reference purposes so as to compose your own paper; in any case, you should refer to it in like manner. You can give your paper here.
Posted by Wesley Yang at 11:44 PM
Monday, July 13, 2020
Understanding Iatrophobia or Fear of Doctors Phobias Types Print Understanding Iatrophobia or Fear of Doctors By Lisa Fritscher Lisa Fritscher is a freelance writer and editor with a deep interest in phobias and other mental health topics. Learn about our editorial policy Lisa Fritscher Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Daniel B. Block, MD on November 21, 2019 twitter linkedin Daniel B. Block, MD, is an award-winning, board-certified psychiatrist who operates a private practice in Pennsylvania. Learn about our Medical Review Board Daniel B. Block, MD Updated on January 25, 2020 Johnny Greig/E/Getty Images More in Phobias Types Causes Symptoms and Diagnosis Treatment In This Article Table of Contents Expand Iatrophobia or Normal Anxiety? Related Symptoms Coping Personalized Treatment Options View All Back To Top Iatrophobia, or fear of doctors, is surprisingly common today.?? Most of us do not particularly enjoy going to the doctor. From the often long waits to the cold, sterile environment to the possibility of a painful procedure, doctor visits can cause anxiety in nearly anyone. For some people, however, normal anxiety gives way to outright panic. Is It Iatrophobia or Normal Anxiety? Since it is normal to be nervous before a doctor visit, it can be difficult to tell whether your symptoms constitute a full-blown phobia. Only a qualified mental health professional can make this determination. However, a few signs may signify that your fear is out of proportion with normal anxiety towards doctors visits. You may experience all, some, or none of the following: Related Symptoms Obsessive Worrying Normal anxiety is typically transitory. You might feel a wave of nervousness when actively thinking about an upcoming appointment. You may feel stress on the way to the doctorâs office or while sitting in the waiting room. However, you will not spend a great deal of time thinking about an upcoming visit, and you will be able to distract yourself from the anxiety if your fears are normal. If you have iatrophobia, however, an upcoming doctor visit may be the source of endless worrying. You might find it difficult or impossible to focus on other things. Once you have reached the doctorâs office, you are likely to experience feelings of panic and a sensation of being out of control. You might sweat, shake or cry, or even refuse to enter the examination room. Other Illness-Related Phobias Many people with iatrophobia worry that they might need to see a doctor, even if no visits are currently scheduled. You might become obsessed with minor ailments, fearing that they will require medical treatment. It is relatively common for iatrophobia to occur alongside illness anxiety disorder (previously known as hypochondriasis) or nosophobia (fear of disease), which are both phobias of illness.?? Postponing Doctor Appointments Those who merely experience nervousness about doctor visits typically do not try to avoid them. If you have iatrophobia, however, you might find yourself putting off checkups, vaccinations, and other routine care. You might suffer through even relatively serious illnesses on your own, rather than seeking professional treatment.?? Dentophobia Although either phobia can occur independently, dentophobia, or fear of dentists, often occurs alongside iatrophobia. It is common for dentists to trigger the same fears as those triggered by doctors of all types. White Coat Hypertension Although controversial, the phenomenon of white coat hypertension has been documented by numerous researchers.?? This occurs when the stress of seeing a doctor is enough to raise your blood pressure to a clinically significant level. Your blood pressure is normal when checked at home or in another setting, such as a health fair, but is high at the doctorâs office. Coping Iatrophobia can be more difficult to treat than many other phobias due to the nature of fear. While phobias can generally be treated with a combination of medications and therapy, many people with iatrophobia fear mental health professionals as well as other types of doctor. It may be difficult for you to visit a professional treatment provider. Although it can temporarily worsen your anxiety, it is very important that you seek treatment. Over time, untreated iatrophobia can cause you to avoid needed medical care.?? This can put your health and well-being at risk, and may ultimately result in difficult, complicated medical procedures for conditions that would have initially been easy to treat. Personalized Treatment Options Some mental health providers offer services via telephone or the internet. Although seeking in-person treatment is always preferable, these services can help you tame your phobia enough to face an in-person visit. Search for a mental health provider that offers services in a low-key setting that is more homelike than clinical. Some professionals work out of their homes or rented spaces in office buildings, rather than hospitals or medical facilities. Some wear jeans and other casual clothes, and some provide soothing music, televisions, and other services designed for relaxation. A good treatment provider will work at your pace. He will take the time to allow you to become comfortable with the office environment before moving on to treating the phobia. Many phobias are treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy, hypnosis, and group seminars. Look for a provider that offers the type of treatment with which you feel most comfortable. Seeking treatment for iatrophobia is never easy. With a bit of advance research, however, you should be able to find a mental health services provider that makes you feel comfortable. Take someone with you to act as a support person if needed, and focus on developing trust with your provider before moving on to the actual phobia treatment.
Posted by Wesley Yang at 11:58 PM
Thursday, May 21, 2020
Urie Bronfenbrenner was a developmental psychologist whose theory of child development really spoke to me. Relating to the microsystem and mesosystem was extremely natural for me. The microsystem is made up of the people or groups you have direct contact with, such as a professor or family member. The mesosystem is the interactions that occur between the microsystems, such as there being a family issue but that issue effecting not only yourself but causing you to have trouble at school or work place. My microsystem contains a lot of relationships including my boss, my coworkers, my classmates, my family and my professors. I am in direct contact with these groups on a daily basis. Every one of these people that I interact with has a different outlook on life. They all have their own beliefs, values, and goals which help us connect and learn from each other in so many different ways. When you work with the same people every day you talk and learn things about each other that you did not know about. I learn of different struggles that each individual is having based on their life and what they go through outside of work. Knowing things about others that you can relate to really help open your eyes to what really matters in life. Everyone you know is fighting a battle that you know nothing about so itÃ¢â¬â¢s most important to be kind but also try to learn from otherÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences. I learn from the traits of my professors that hard work pays off in the end. They are a great e xampleShow MoreRelatedChild Development Theories1324 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesChild Developmental Theories Ashford University PSY 104 Child and Adolescent Psychology June 29, 2009 Child Developmental Theories While theorists have different ideas and perspectives, insight on child and adolescent development can assist teachers and parents in helping children reach their full developmental and learning potential. Having knowledge about the developmentRead MoreThe Theories Of Child Development1084 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesimportant values and beliefs within their culture. All of this provides the foundations for cognitive development. As trainee teachers, it is fundamental that we have a deeper understanding of how children learn and how we can support learning. In order to do this we must first look at some of the theories of learning. 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This essay will consider differing theories of language development such as the be haviourist theory proposed by Skinner (1957)Read MoreThe Theory Of Child Development935 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Lawrence Kohlberg was a developmental theorist who is best known for his specific and detailed theory of child development. Kohlberg believed that there were six stages of child development. He divided those stages into three levels of development. Level one; pre-conventional morality, a child doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a personal code of mortality and instead, their moral code is shaped by the standards of adults and the consequences of following or breaking of adult rules. Level two; conventional moralityRead MoreThe Theory of Child Development1636 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages The theory of child development, Temperament, is what this case study is based off of. Temperament is a personÃ¢â¬â¢s style of reacting to the world and relating to others. I will be judging Ã¢â¬Å"AliceÃ¢â¬ on the nine temperament traits on a ten point scale. Alice is my 2 year old cousin who knows me well because I frequently babysit her. I recently observed her personality on the nine traits. These traits include; intensity, persistence, sensitivity, perceptiveness, adaptability, regularity, energy, first
Posted by Wesley Yang at 9:39 AM
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Class in the United States What is the American Dream? This question is often asked and argued, having an unclear definition of what it really means. Many believe that it is a collection of ideals in which freedom gives anyone the opportunity of having job security, owning a home an obtaining a great education. While others, believe it is a promise that anyone may rise from poverty to wealth. The concept of having such high aspirations is often related to class structure and power. These terms are often linked as two abstract ideas that determine the basic framework of how we live in the United States. Furthermore, they represent the power to confine people into a socioeconomic status as Sociologist Karl Marx explains through his conflict perspective theory. Some believe that class structures are becoming more apparent as economic power continues to rise and the presence of the recent recession, still remains. This idea has made a clear distinction among social positions as people are classified into upper, m iddle and working classes. Although, some may argue that class structure and power can be modified, the social differences built by the minority in power still continue to be deeply rooted and cannot be adjusted. Social structure is an institutional framework created by patterns of social relationships and interactions among people. These patterns often influence and impact the ways people shape their attitudes and perceptions. Social classes are measured by the wealth,Show MoreRelatedCompare and COntarst1518 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescivilizations from back to 3,500 B.C. The political and social structures in these civilizations were different and the same in their own way. The political differences between Egypt and Mesopotamia included hierarchy power, land control, and centralized government. The similarities between both civilizations are social class, male patriarchy, and kings. 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The political structure gets this power from the idea thatRead MoreIncome Inequality : The Perspectives Of Marx And Weber Essay1505 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesin American Society: The Perspectives of Marx and Weber In the United States, income inequality is drawing more and more attention from the media, sociologists, politicians, and everyday citizens like us since the economic difference during the past decades became more pronounced than before. Karl Marx and Max Weber both discussed their ideas of social inequality and addressed the relationship between inequality and social structure as an important theme in their work. This paper compares and contrastsRead MoreEconomic Globlization1286 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesUtilitarianism. Contrary to popular belief, the United States doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t believe in such a state of being. Instead, through capitalism and economic globalization the United States has proven to believe in the exact opposite of utilitarianism. 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string(35) " hemisphere performs unique tasks\." Brain is the part of the nervous system that is enclosed in the skull. All vertebrates have well-developed brains; most invertebrates do not have true brains. Instead, they have groups of nerve cells called nerve nets, nerve cords, or ganglia. We will write a custom essay sample on Brain nervous system or any similar topic only for you Order Now The human brain is an extension of the spinal cord, and with it makes up the central nervous system. It contains billions of neurons, or nerve cells, each with more than 10, 000 synapses, or connections to other neurons. No two brain cells are alike. The brain cannot regenerate new brain cells but it can bypass dead or damaged cells to form new synapses between existing cells. The brain receives information from all parts of the body and sends out instructions to the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s various organs and systems. The information and instructions travel through the brain in the form of nerve impulses, electrical signals that elicit chemical changes. The impulses travel along the neurons and move from one neuron to the next across the synapses by means of chemicals called neurotransmitters. It is through nerve impulses that the brain controls such activities as voluntary and involuntary movement (Zoeller, 2003). The brain is connected with the sense organs, muscles of the head, and internal organs of the body by 12 pairs of cranial nerves. Some of the cranial nerves, called motor nerves, carry impulses from the brain to various parts of the body. Others, called sensory nerves, carry impulses from the body back to the brain. Most pairs of cranial nerves contain one motor and one sensory nerve; a few pairs contain sensory nerves only. The brain consists of two types of tissue: (1) nerve cells, or gray matter; and (2) sheathed nerve fibers, or white matter. The sheath is composed of myelin, a fatty protein that protects and insulates the fibers. A large number of blood vessels carry nourishment to the brain. The brain extracts certain substances from the blood and metabolizes them (that is, produces chemical changes in them) to produce energy. Glucose, its main source of energy, is metabolized by a chemical reaction with oxygen carried in the blood. The human brain is more complex and has more functions than the brain of any other animal. It is the seat of consciousness and the coordinator of the nervous system. Thought, memory, imagination, and other mental processes are functions of the brain. Specific areas in the brain are responsible for language and emotions. The brain is the seat of sensations. All voluntary and some reflex muscular movements are initiated and regulated by the brain (Colzie, 2006). In addition, various parts of the brain control such automatic functions as heartbeat, temperature regulation, digestion, and breathing. The brain of the average human male weighs about 3 pounds (1. 4 kg); the human female, 2. 7 pounds (1. 2 kg). At birth, a babyÃ¢â¬â¢s brain weighs only 11 to 13 ounces (310 to 370 g), but it grows rapidly during the first years of life. By the age of seven, a childÃ¢â¬â¢s brain has reached nearly its full weight and volume, after which its growth is slow. The brain of a human male is fully grown by the 20th year, that of a female somewhat earlier. After the age of 20, the brain loses about one gram (0. 04 ounce) of weight per year (Spear, 1995). This study discusses the brain development and how it functions. II. Discussion Brain tissue is very soft and easily injured. It is well protected, however, by the skull and by three membranes of connective tissue, collectively called the meninges, between the skull and brain. The outermost membrane is thick and tough, and fits closely to the inner surface of the skull. This membrane is called the dura mater, which is Latin for Ã¢â¬Å"hard mother. Ã¢â¬ The innermost membrane is the pia mater, Latin for Ã¢â¬Å"tender mother. Ã¢â¬ This thin membrane contains a network of blood vessels. These blood vessels supply nourishment to the brain, and carry blood from its interior back to the heart. The pia mater conforms exactly to the outer surface of the brain itself (Cynader, 1994). Between the dura mater and the pia mater is the arachnoid, or Ã¢â¬Å"spider-like,Ã¢â¬ membrane. It is a soft, delicate, transparent tissue. The subarachnoid space, between the arachnoid membrane and the dura mater, is filled with cerebrospinal fluid, a clear, colorless liquid composed of protein, glucose, urea, and salts. It moistens the tissues of the brain and protects them from injury. The brain is also protected by the blood-brain barrier, a network of tightly meshed capillaries (tiny blood vessels) that selectively filter out harmful chemicals and waste products while permitting other substances, such as nutrients, to pass directly into the brain (Zoeller, 2003). This barrier prevents harmful compounds in the blood from being absorbed by brain tissue. A. Parts of the Brain The brain itself consists of three main parts: a large forward part called the forebrain; a narrow middle portion called the midbrain; and a rear part, called the hindbrain. It contains four cavities (hollow spaces called ventricles). The Forebrain, which is made up mainly a mass of neurons called the cerebrum, occupies most of the skull cavity and accounts for 90 percent of the weight of the entire brain. The surface of the cerebrum is a layer of gray matter called the cerebral cortex. It has many folds, or convolutions, which greatly increase its area. The longitudinal fissure, a deep cleft running from front to back, partially divides the cerebrum into right and left hemispheres. A central band of nerve fibers called the corpus collosum connects the two hemispheres. It contains bundles of nerve fibers called nerve tracts that carry information between the two hemispheres. The corticospinal tract carries impulses from the cerebral cortex to the spinal cord. Its fibers cross each other at the region where medulla oblongata (an area in the hindbrain) meets the spinal cord (Sousa, 2006). Thus, the left interprets the sensations of the right side of the body and vice versa. Each hemisphere performs unique tasks. You read "Brain nervous system" in category "Papers" The left hemisphere is responsible for logical thought, writing, and mathematical skills. The centers of language are also located here. BrocaÃ¢â¬â¢s area, situated in the frontal lobe (the forward section of the hemisphere), is responsible for the production of language. WernickeÃ¢â¬â¢s area, situated in the temporal lobe, a section above the ears, is responsible for the comprehension of language. The two areas are connected by a bundle of fibers called the arcuata fasciculus. Damage to these fibers will cause speech impairment. The right hemisphere is responsible for intuition, musical and artistic ability, and analysis of visual patterns. Although each hemisphere is responsible for different functions, one can take over for the other in the event of localized brain damage (Puckett, 1999). The cerebral cortex contains two specialized areas: the somatic sensory cortex and the motor cortex. They are separated by the central fissure, a deep cleft perpendicular to the longitudinal fissure and extending across the roof of the brain. The somatic sensory cortex receives sensory signals from the skin, bones, joints, and muscles. The motor cortex controls the voluntary movement of muscles. Almost every part of the human body has a specific region controlling it in both the somatic sensory cortex and the motor cortex. Body parts that perform intricate movements, such as lips, hands, and legs, are controlled by large parts of the cortex. Body parts that perform gross movements, such as the shoulders and trunk, are controlled by smaller areas. Adjacent regions in the brain control adjacent body parts (Spear, 1995). The cortex of each cerebral hemisphere is divided into four sections, called lobes: 1. The Frontal Lobe, the forward, upper part of the cerebrum, includes the areas concerned with intelligence, judgment, emotional reaction, and the movement of skeletal muscles. 2. The Parietal Lobe, in the upper, back area of the cerebrum, receives and interprets the sensations of pressure, temperature, and position. 3. The Temporal Lobe, above ears, is concerned with hearing, memory, and understanding of speech. 4. The Occipital Lobe, in the back part of the cerebrum, is concerned with vision and the interpretation of objects that are seen. Each hemisphere contains a mass of nuclei called the thalamus (plural: thalami). It consists of gray matter that integrates a wide range of sensations from the visual and motor cortexes. It also plays a role in emotions. Above each thalamus are two basal ganglia, clusters of neurons that help regulate body movements (Cynader, 1994). Beneath the thalami is the hypothalamus, a mass of nerve cells and fibers that controls the reaction of the body of stress and to strong emotion. It also regulates the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s water balance, temperature, appetite, sleepiness, and heart rate. Below and in front of the hypothalamus is the pituitary gland, which is partially controlled by the hypothalamus (Colzie, 2006). The pineal gland, or epiphysis, is a coneshaped organ located beneath the corpus callosum. It is connected by nerves to the eyes and is extremely sensitive to light. In response to darkness, it secretes melatonin, a hormone that is believed to induce sleep (Sousa, 2006). The olfactory bulbs, which govern the sense of smell, are located on the undersurface of the hemispheres. Nerves run from the nose through these bulbs to the cerebrum (Sousa, 2006). The Midbrain contains tracts (bundles) of nerve fibers that connect with other parts of the brain and with the spinal cord. The midbrain also has centers for auditory and visual reflexes, such as the contracting of the pupils (Sousa, 2006). The Hindbrain consists of three parts: (1) the cerebellum, behind and beneath the cerebrum; (2) the pons, beneath the midbrain and opposite the cerebellum; and (3) the medulla oblongata, attached at its base to the spinal cord (Sousa, 2006). The cerebellum, like the cerebrum, has a convoluted surface. The chief function of the cerebellum is to coordinate and regulate movements of the skeletal muscles. (The movements, however, are initiated and controlled by the cerebrum). When the cerebellum is damaged, ordinary movements directed by the cerebrum cannot be carried out. Limb movements become slow and jerky, and speech may become slurred. The pons is a smooth-surfaced bulge between the midbrain and the medulla oblongata. It contains tracts that connect the two sides of the cerebellum, and tracts that connect other parts of the brain with each other and with the spinal cord. Many of the cranial nerves pass through here. The pons controls the motor and sensory nerves to the eyes, jaw, face, and muscles. Together with the cerebellum, it regulates posture and balance (Puckett, 1999). The medulla oblongata is smooth, without convolutions. It contains three important nerve centers: one affects the rate of heartbeat; one controls breathing; and one produces the constriction of blood vessels to control the volume of blood supply to the tissues. It is also the site where the nerves from the left hemisphere cross over to control the right side of the body and vice versa. Reflex centers of vomiting and swallowing also lie in the medulla. The midbrain, pons, and medulla, oblongata together form a structure called the brain stem. Deep within the brains tem, extending from the medulla to the midbrain is a network of nerve cells and fibers called the reticular formation (Cynader, 1994). The reticular formation regulates the amount and speed of electrical activity in the cerebral cortex. Many sensory nerves feed into it. It is believed to be the seat of consciousness. Ventricles. There are four ventricles within the brain. These cavities are connected to each other and to the hollow core of the spinal cord. The largest cavities are the two lateral ventricles, located in each hemisphere of the cerebrum. Beneath the lateral ventricles is the third ventricle and under it is the fourth. Cerebrospinal fluid is formed and stored in the ventricles (Cynader, 1994). Within the lateral ventricles is the limbic system, a group of structures that controls emotions and behavior, stores memories, and is involved in learning. It contains two masses if gray matter: the amygdale and the hippocampus. B. Chemistry of the Brain Since the early 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s, researchers have discovered that the brain contains more than 50 neurotransmitters, chemical substances that facilitate the transmission of nerve impulses between neurons. They interact with specific receptor sites in the brain to elicit chemical changes. Some circulate throughout the body (Spear, 1995). All neurotransmitters have chemical precursors. These are substances, composed of glucose and amino acids, which are produced elsewhere in the body and are carried in the bloodstream. The precursors are able to cross the blood-brain barrier into the brain, where they are eventually converted into neurotransmitters (Spear, 1995). The quantities of neurotransmitters in the brain are affected by the consumption of certain foods and also by strenuous exercise. Endorphins make up a family of neurotransmitters that act as natural painkillers. They moderate the amount of pain an individual feels. They are composed of chains of amino acids called peptides. Narcotic analgesic drugs, such as heroin or morphine, effectively reduce pain by occupying the same receptor sites and producing the same interactions as endorphins. These drugs are often prescribed for severe pain or when there is a delay or malfunction in the release of the natural painkillers (Zoeller, 2003). Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that functions in storing memories, regulating moods, and controlling body movements. Consumption of such foods as eggs, soybeans, and liver increases its production. All of these contain lecithin, which is converted into choline in the liver. Choline is a chemical precursor that is converted into acetylcholine in the brain. Serotonin, a neurotransmitter found only in the hypothalamus and midbrain, relieves depression, reduces sensitivity to pain, and induces sleep. Its chemical precursor is tryptophan, which is found in the protein in meat, fowl, and fish. Norepinephrine is another neurotransmitter that helps relieved depression (Zoeller, 2003). Its precursor is tyrosine, which is also found in protein. Strenuous exercise increases the production of endorphins and norepinephrine. It is this increased production that causes Ã¢â¬Å"runnerÃ¢â¬â¢s highÃ¢â¬âan increased tolerance to pain and a state of euphoria experienced by many long-distance runners. III. Conclusion In conclusion, as I study this subject I have discovered one thing and that isÃ¢â¬â brain is like your computerÃ¢â¬â¢s body. It receives information from the internal organs such as the heart, intestines and from the sense organsÃ¢â¬âthe eyes, the ears, the tongue, the skin and the nose. It makes me think that the brain is the control center of the body. It receives all messages from different parts of the body, interpret them, and tell the parts what to do. Moreover, as what I have understood from the research I conducted, it gives me an idea that the brain is not completely developed even in full-term newborn infants. A great deal of brain development takes place in the first few months of postnatal life; and, in fact, brain growth continues at least until adolescence, and perhaps in adulthood. Some nerve fibers in the brain develop myelin sheaths. Many of these nerve fibers have not become myelinated by the time of birth. The process of myelination continues for years, especially in the reticular formation and parts of the forebrain. Reference: 1. Colzie, Lakesha (2006). The First Three Years and Beyond: Brain Development and Social Policy. Childhood Education, Vol. 82. 2. Cynader, Max S. (1994). Mechanisms of Brain Development and Their Role in Health and Well-Being . Daedalus, Vol. 123. 3. Meltzoff, Andrew N. (2002). The Imitative Mind: Development, Evolution, and Brain Bases. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, England. 4. Puckett, Margaret (1999). Examining the Emergence of Brain Development Research. Childhood Education, Vol. 76. 5. Sousa, David A. (2006). How the Arts Develop the Young Brain: Neuroscience Research Is Revealing the Impressive Impact of Arts Instruction on StudentsÃ¢â¬â¢ Cognitive, Social and Emotional Development. School Administrator, Vol. 63. 6. Spear, Norman E. (1995). Neurobehavioral Plasticity: Learning, Development, and Response to Brain Insults. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Hillsdale, NJ. 7. Zoeller, R. Thomas (2003). Thyroid Toxicology and Brain Development: Should We Think Differently? Envir How to cite Brain nervous system, Papers
Posted by Wesley Yang at 7:30 AM
Thursday, April 23, 2020
The empowerment of persons who are vulnerable and excluded, promotion of social justice and equity are the main concerns of social policies, and this should transcend all aspects of society, including participation in governance and decision making. Inspite of the pivotal role women in Ghana play within the family, they are invisibly represented in governance and decision making sector of the economy. This is because there is no concrete policy measures in place to ensure that the structural inequality between men and women are taken into account in promoting participation in policy decision.Efforts are being made at various levels to address the marginalization of women in GhanaÃ¢â¬â¢s politics and other spheres of life, but this still remains an area of concern. In a country where women constitute about 51 percent, their involvement in development issues and political leadership should be of grave concern, and given due consideration. Affirmative action Policy is therefore viewed as the appropriate instrument to enhance womenÃ¢â¬â¢s participation in governance and decision making in Ghana. We will write a custom essay sample on Using Affirmative Action to Promote Womens or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page This paper will therefore review womenÃ¢â¬â¢s participation/empowerment in Ghana; outline various commitments seeking to enhance womenÃ¢â¬â¢s participation in Ghana; the Affirmative Action Policy and finally look at expected outcomes of the Affirmative Action Policy and how it will enhance womenÃ¢â¬â¢s participation in Ghana. WOMENÃ¢â¬â¢S PARTICIPATION IN GHANA Although there is no law in Ghana that prevents women from participating in politics or in areas of GhanaÃ¢â¬â¢s economic or social life, women are generally under-represented in politics and in public life.There seems to be no long term strategic framework put in place to address this failure. This has been attributed to a lack of political will and a deficient commitment to gender equality among political parties. Gender advocates have asked that government and its agencies, political parties and relevant public and private institutions should take actions that ensure and assure their active commitment to improving the current situation of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s low representation in politics and public appointive positions at all levels.
Posted by Wesley Yang at 11:27 PM